Both Picasso and Braque were influenced by the writings, theories, and paintings of Paul Cezanne. Along with another group, they began to paint in an abstract geometric style later referred to as analytic cubism.
In an effort to return to a more realistic form of painting, they retained the geometric format but began to incorporate such realistic materials into their work as sand, newspapers, and strin. They built up areas and added texture in unorthodox ways by also including such items as hair, feathers, cloth, and even tickets and old matchbooks. Thus collage as a true art form was born as a result of the transition from analytic cubism to synthetic cubism.
However, collage did not stop at the two-dimensional level. The Dadaists used collage effectively to express their views of society by gluing together discarded everyday items. One of their most famous works is "The Urinal" by Marcel Duchamp. The word "collage" is taken from the French verb "coller", which means to paste or glue. The beginning of a collage is the pasting or gluing of paper to paper, of paper to board, or any of several materials to each other.
Collage today is an accepted and valued art form. It allows the artist the freedom to approach the medium in whatever manner is pleasing and does not restrict him/her to any format or material. This medium is a direct form of communication for an artist. That is, it allows one to work with whatever materials he/she chooses.
Collage is different from other art forms because it does not dictate a particular style. Style is often controlled by materials and because the materials are never the same for any two persons, the style of collage is always a variable. Collage is an excellent medium for both the beginner and the experienced artist. The inventiveness and creativity used in a collage usually do not result from experience but from a willingness to experiment with the basic proceedure.
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